This is the bibliography of sources used when writing the history of Eastern State Penitentiary. There are two ways to view this document:

  1. READ THE TEXT BELOW. You can copy and paste this text into a word processing application of your choice, change the text to black and print.
  2. DOWNLOAD IN MSWORD FORMAT. If you prefer Microsoft Word, you can download the document in that format here.

Bibliographical Notes on Eastern State Penitentiary and Some Related Topics:

Prison Reform (eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries texts):

Cesare Beccaria, Essay on Crimes and Punishments, London, J. Almon, 1767.

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), The Panopticon Writings, Verso, London & New York, 1995 [edited and introduced by M. Bozovic].

Jonas Hanway (1712-1786), Solitude in Imprisonment, London 1776.

John Howard, The State of the Prisons in England and Wales, Warrington, William Eyres, 1784 (3rd edition).

Benjamin Rush, Essays: Literary, Moral and Philosophical, Schenectady, Union College Press, 1988 [edited and introduced by M. Meranze].

Observers of the Pennsylvania Penitentiaries (eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries texts):

Gustave de Beaumont et Alexis de Tocqueville, Du système pénitentaire aux Etats-Unis et de son application en France, H. Fournier Jeune, Paris 1833.

George Combe (1788-1858), Notes on the United States of North America: During a Phrenological Visit in 1838-9-40, 2 vol., Philadelphia, Carey & Hart, 1841.

William Crawford (1788-1847), Report on the Penitentiaries of the United States (1835), Montclair, Patterson Smith, 1969 [introduction by N. Johnston].

F. A. Demetz (1796-1873) & G.-A. Blouet, Rapport sur les pénitentiers des Etats-Unis, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1837.

Charles Dickens, American Notes, New York, The Modern Library, 1996 [Introduction by C. Hitchens].

Guillaume M. A. Ferrus, Des prisonniers, de l’emprisonnement et des prisons, Paris, Gemer-Baillière Librairie éditeur, 1850.

N. H. Julius (1783-1862), Leçons sur les prisons, Paris, F. G. Levrault, 1831.

F. A. F. La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Des prisons de Philadelphie; par un européen, Paris, Mme Huzard, 1819 (4e édition).

Caleb Lownes, An Account of the Alteration and Present State of the Penal Laws of Pennsylvania, Containing, also, an Account of the Goal and Penitentiary House of Philadelphia –and the Interior Management Thereof, Boston, Young & Minns, (Lexington, Bradford, 1794) 1799.

Caleb Lownes, An Enquiry How Far the Punishment of Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania. With Notes and Illustrations by William Bradford, Esq., Philadelphia, Dobson, 1793.

Charles J. M. Lucas (1803-1889), Exposé de l’état de la question pénitentiaire en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, Paris, Imprimerie Panckoucke, 1844.

Harriet Martineau (1802-1876), Society in America, 2 vol., London & New York, Saunders & Otley, 1837.

L.-M. Moreau-Christophe (1800-1881), De la réforme des prisons, d’après le système de l’emprisonnement individuel, Paris, Huzard, 1836.

Robert J. Turnbull (1775-1833), A Visit to the Philadelphia Prison, Philadelphia, Bud & Bartram, 1796.

George W. Smith (1800-1876), A Defence of the System of Solitary Confinement of Prisoners Adopted by the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, E. G. Dorsey, 1833.

Richard Vaux, Brief Sketch of the Origin and History of the Sate Penitentiary for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, Philadelphia, McLaughlin Brothers, 1872.

Quaker History and Faith:

Margaret H. Bacon, The Quiet Rebels: the Story of the Quakers in America, New York & London, Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, 1969.

Robert W. Doherty, The Hicksite Separation: A Sociological Analysis of Religious Schism in Early Nineteenth Century America, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1967.

Newton Garver and Eric Reitan, Nonviolence and Community: Reflections on the Alternatives to Violence Project, Pendle Hill Pamphlet 322, (1995) 2000.

John Kent, Elizabeth Fry, New York, Arco Publishing Company Inc., 1962.

Auguste Jorns, The Quakers as Pioneers in Social Work (1931), Port Washington, Kennikat Press Inc., 1969 [translated by T. Kite Brown].

George T. Peck, What is Quakerism?, Pendle Hill Pamphlet 277, (1988) 2000.

Philadelphia Architecture and John Haviland:

Matthew Baigell, "John Haviland in Philadelphia" in: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. XXV, No. 3, October 1966, 197-208.

Agnes Addison Gilchrist, "John Haviland before 1816" in: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. XX, No. 3, October 1961, 136-137.

Talbot Hamlin, Greek Revival Architecture in America, London, Oxford University Press, 1944.

Norman Johnston, "John Haviland, Jailor to the World" in: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. XXIII, No. 2, May 1964, 101-106.

Nikolaus Pevsner, A History of Building Types, Princeton, Princeton university Press [Bollingen Series XXXV.19], 1976.

David M. Robb, "A Century of Architecture in Philadelphia" in: Theo B. White (ed.), Philadelphia Architecture in the Nineteenth Century, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Art Alliance by University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953, 13-18.

George B. Tatum, Penn’s Great Town: 250 Years of Philadelphia Architecture, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1961.

History of Eastern State Penitentiary:

Norman Johnston (ed.), Eastern State Penitentiary: Crucible of Good Intentions, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1994.

Laura Magnani, America’s First Penitentiary: A 200 Year Old Failure, American Friends Society Committee, San Francisco, 1990.

Negley K. Teeters, The Cradle of the Penitentiary: The Walnut Street Jail at Philadelphia, 1773-1835, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Prison Society, 1955.

Negley K. Teeters & John D. Shearer, The Prison at Philadelphia, Cherry Hill, New York, Columbia University Press for Temple University Publications, 1957.

Marianna Thomas (ed.), Eastern State Penitentiary: Historic Structures Report, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Historical Commission, 2 vol., 1994.

American Prison History:

American Correctional Association, The American Prison: from the beginning? A Pictorial History, 1983.

Orlando F. Lewis, The Development of American Prisons and Prison Customs, 1776-1845, New York, Prison Association of New York, 1922.

W. David Lewis, From Newgate to Dannemora: The Rise of the Penitentiary in New York, 1796-1848, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1965.

Blake McKelvey, American Prisons: A Study in America Social History Prior to 1915, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1936.

Michael Meranze, Labories of Virtue. Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760-1835, Chapel Hill & London, North Carolina Univeristy Press, 1996.

Daniel E. Williams, Pillars of Salt: An Anthology of Early American Criminal Narratives, Madison House, 1993.

Prison Architecture History:

Norman Johnston, The Human Cage: A Brief History of Prison Architecture, The American Foundation, New York, 1973.

Norman Johnston, Forms of Constraint: A History of Prison Architecture, Urbana & Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2000.

History of Prison Reform and Punishment:

Harry Elmer Barnes, The Story of Punishment: A Record of Man’s Inhumanity to Man, Montclair, Patterson Smith [Publication no112], (1930) 1972.

David Fogel, "We Are the Living Proof". The Justice Model for Corrections, Cincinnati, Anderson Publishing [Criminal Justice Studies], (1975) 1979.

Coleman Phillipson, Three Criminal Reformers: Beccaria, Bentham, Romilly, London & Toronto, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1923.

Georg Rusche & Otto Kirchheimer, Punishment and Social Structure, New York, Russell & Russell, (1939) 1968.

Thorsten Sellin, "Dom Jean Mabillon – A Prison Reformer of the Seventeenth Century" in: Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. XVII-No 4, Chicago, February 1927, 581-602.

Thorsten Sellin, "Filippo Franci – A Precursor of Modern Penology" in: Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. XVII-No 1, Chicago, May 1926, 104-112.

Janet Semple, Bentham’s Prison: A Study of the Panopticon Penitentiary, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993.

Literature and Punishment:

Daniel A. Cohen, Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993.

Karen Halttunen, Murder Most Foul. The Killer and the American Gothic Imagination, Cambridge & London, Harvard University Press, 1998.

Philosophy of Punishment:

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish (Surveiller et punir, 1975), New York, Vintage Books, 1979 [translated by A. Sheridan].

Erving Goffman, "On the Characteristics of Total Institutions" in: Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates, New York, Anchor Books, 1961, 1-124.

Reg Whitaker, The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance is Becoming a Reality, New York, The New Press, 1999.


Margaret Atwood, Alias Grace, New York, Anchors Books, 1996.

Joseph T. Hallinan, Going Up The River: Travels in a Prison Nation, New York, Random House, 2001.

Franz Kafka, "In the Penal Colony" in: The Complete Stories, New York, Schocken Books, (1971) 1988, 140-167 [translated by W. & E. Muir].

Muriel Schmid/May 2001